While taking the psychology course and listening lectures on memory and learning, I have discovered ways to improve my study skills. It is the concept that I learned through chapter on memory. In the next five years I will doubtless encounter even harder courses that demand memorization of many challenging concepts, and concepts such as mnemonic devices (an aid or device that increases learning), distributed studying (spreading study time out), and elaborative rehearsal (connecting new knowledge to preexisting knowledge) will be vital to my success.

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Not related to the studying process, I always tend to forget some stuffs and ideas that are related to my real life. Sometimes I immediately forgot something as I walked in to my room, or I sometimes completely forgot the name of someone who just introduced themselves to me. I strongly believe that memory is a big part of our lives and sadly, it fades as we age. But this doesn't necessarily have to happen to all of us. Although genetics is a huge component of our developing diseases like dementia or Alzheimer's, studies have shown that living a healthy lifestyle and challenging our mind can decreases the risk of memory loss. So I researched the ways to save our memory:

1. Get Active - Research has shown that people who work out- especially light working out like walking - have better memory than people who are inactive. A recent study found that exercise counteracts the brain from shrinking due to age. The older subjects who exercised gained two percent of their brain volume while the non-exercisers lost brain tissue.
2. Eat your Fruits and Veggies - Fruits and Veggies contain loads of healthy vitamins for us but they also contain a lot of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are thought to be involved in dementia, these food groups can help with controlling memory loss.
3. Reduce your Risk Factors for Heart Disease - By exercising and controlling your diet you decrease your risk for heart disease which has been linked to dementia.
4. Got Culture? - Being open to new ideas and being curious leads to a stronger mental activity. Those who participate in cultural activities and reading have been shown to have a delay in dementia.
5. Brush your Teeth -Going to the dentist actually does pay off! Twin studies have found that the twin with more tooth loss have a higher increase of having dementia or Alzheimer's disease.
6. Got a Difficult Job? Perfect!- Having a stressful job dealing with people boosts your mental activity which helps prevent memory loss. Jobs that deal with persuasion, mentoring, instruction, and supervision have been shown to protect memory.

The debate among parents nowadays is whether it is okay to inflict violence on their own children as a form of punishment or even teaching as a way to correct an incorrect practice by the child. There are certain degrees, however, where the amount of violence put on the children by the parents become too much and the relationship no longer feels like a parent to a child. I think using violence raising children is wrong especially when it comes to physical beatings or any kind of violence where the child begins to fear his or her parents.


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Physical punishment in children has become a big issue these days. This topic has been discussed for a long time and there are some different groups that agree or disagree about this issue. As I already metioned, I perosnally think that the use of violence raising in children is not right thing to do. While many people across the world have different thoughts and argument by the specific cultures or traditions, my country, South Korea, is actually one of the nation that uses corporal punishment. However, I don't believe that punishing children physically is the best way to treat them. One of the friends of mine grew up under very strict parents so his parents always gave his physical punishment when he did something wrong. I remember that he told me that his parents punish him so often even with very trivial thing that he has done. So he always had a lot of complain about that. As he was getting older, his parents physical punishment affected him so badly that my friend actually ran away from home and did not even keep in touch with this parents for more than a month. I understand that his parents were thinking that they were doing the right thing to thier child in order to make him as a good person, however, their abuse of physical punishment produced a contrary result. Like this, there are numerous ways to treat children other than physically punished. Actually, the children who grow up in love and care of their parents seem more happy and have great personality than the children who raised up in violent parents. There is a book called, "Do not even hit with a flower." Like the title of the book said, parents supposed to raise children with great love, not the punishment.

Illusory correlation refers to assuming that there is a relationship between two events or two variables when there really is no relationship. We have a tendency to notice a relationship between unusual events, and that is where the error occurs because we fail to consider other important information and we also fail to prove assumptions that we have.
I believe that this concept is important to study about because it can cause many superstitions and misconceptions in real life situations or events. If people choose to believe these illusory correlations without any proven evidence, then there will be many misunderstandings and wrong accusations and we will continue to stay attached to these assumed correlations.
We can find a lot of examples of illusory correlation. One big example can be found in athletes. Most athletes have some sort of "lucky" game behavior, like their lucky socks. They wore the socks one time when they played really well and so they associate them with doing well. However, they will disregard any of the times that they wore the socks and did not play well. This is an illusory correlation because the socks have nothing to do with actually doing well.
There is another fun study called sugar-hyperactivity myth. In the 1970s, Benjamin F. Feingold, M.D., a pediatric allergist, proposed that artificial colors and artificial flavors caused hyperactivity in children. Feingold promoted a diet called the Feingold Diet that was used to treat hyperactivity. I found this article very interesting, and the title is Can Food Really Affect Your Child's Behavior, written by Jennifer Warner. This discussion is about the myth and what the experts have to say about it. Here's a link to the original article: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=52516
According to Warner, many parents have witnessed the behavior of their children after consuming large amounts of sweets and have blamed the unusual behavior on sugar. But there has been no major studies or hard evidence that there is any relationship between food and behavior.

While we were discussing about the development of human behavior, the topic was especially about whether violent video games or violent imagery on TV shows or movies causes aggressive behavior of children. I totally agree that violent imageries give huge impact on children's aggressive behavior. Everyone might realize that young children learn something by watching and following what others do. Also, as young age children, violent things motivate them more that peaceful and friendly things, because they might think it's cool to be a super hero. Children learn things more quickly than old age people, so I think it's going to be very dangerous to expose too much violent shows to the children.


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I actually read a lot of news and articles about shocking facts related with violence. For example, there was a teenager boy who addicted to play violent video games. He plays game more than 10hours a day. The game was about shooting and killing the enemies with guns and knives. And one day, his mother told him to stop game and when the boy refuses to stop, she took away the video game from him by force. Then, the teenage boy killed his family using the knife when they were in bed. There are several more articles about similar issues. Parents should realize how much impact the video games have on children. Even shy children can change violently through seeing them in short time. So, I would like to conclude that violent imageries never going to be helpful to educate children, and parents should be more careful to let them watch the show or anything like that.


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Lucy wakes up in the middle of night by a weird thing pressing her body. She tries to open her eyes but she can't. After several attempts, she finally sees what was on her; it is an old witch with wrinkled face and sharp nose. She tries to scream but she can't. On the other side of the world, Takayoshi experiences the same thing. When he opens his eyes because of a horrifying feeling, he sees a pale-faced ghost with long black hair staring at him. It's a ghost he often sees in Japanese horror movies.

What these two people are experiencing is called sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis is caused by a disruption in the sleep cycle and is often associated with anxiety or even terror, feelings of vibrations, humming noises, and the eerie sense of menacing figures lose to or on top of the immobile person. This is a universal phenomenon, but why do people see different things during this experience?

I think the culture affects people even in unconscious state of mind, because people experience or dream different things during sleeping. For example, Lucy dreamed about a witch because she has never seen Japanese horror movies, and has heard of scary witch stories ever since she was little. On the other hand, Takayoshi is more familiar with Japanese ghosts than witches in western folk tales, which resulted in seeing a girl with long dark hair. As this simple example tells us, we know that we can't categorize people into groups psychologically. When one thing applies to one group, it may not apply to the other group because of cultural and environmental differences. That's why we need to focus on individual differences in studying psychology.

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As people start to recognize the importance of psychology, new psychological theories and hypotheses have been published rapidly. Perhaps they are trustworthy, and perhaps they aren't. As a "naïve" receiver in the sea of information, critical acceptance is required in order to avoid falling into false information: pseudoscience. Pseudoscience, sets of claims that seem scientific but aren't, may sound tempting because we tend to believe what we want to believe. For example, some people think our characteristics can be defined by blood type. According to what they described, people with blood type A are usually shy and neat while the ones with the type B are straightforward and egocentric.

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I've seen a lot of books and comics with a list of different personalities of these four blood types. It makes perfect sense because they are all generalized. People with blood type O, however, can be timid when they are around strangers and outgoing when they are with friends. It doesn't mean my blood type is O if I didn't talk to a stranger I met in library today. Or maybe I was having a bad day so I didn't wanted to talk to someone I've never met. It doesn't make sense to categorize six billions of people into four characteristics, because we all have different genes and are living in different environments. Despite the fact that it isn't true, I think the reason people keep reading about blood types is because they want to fit in somewhere, and want to define themselves who they are and what their personality is in simple words. Or perhaps, people stick to these kinds of pseudoscience because of belief perseverance, which causes us to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them.

The other day my roommate and I went on YouTube and looked up all of the theme songs to the shows we watched as little girls. I knew almost all of the words to every song. That right there is evidence that I probably spent too much time in front of the TV as a little girl. I do remember my parents limiting my "TV time", but usually I could watch TV whenever I wanted to. When I was in elementary school my mom was a stay-at-home mom. I think that helped me when it came to interactions with people and creative outlets. Mom did a great job of taking us to the park, coming up with crafts, going on bike rides, going to the pool, really anything that kept us active.

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With all of the technology available today I can totally see why children might get too much exposure to television. My first instinct, when babysitting, when a kid started to cry was to plop them in front of their favorite cartoon. It usually calmed them down. It's sad that that is what calms kids down instead of human interaction.
I also think kids do learn a lot more valuable lessons from people than TV. Real life is a much better educator than a television screen. The TV really does discriminate between genders. When I would watch Saturday morning cartoons, I always wanted the toys displayed in the girly commercials, not the boys.
I think if kids spend more time with people in their lives, instead of TV, they will be more open-minded and active.

I agree more with the article "The Pleasure of Giving". I feel that everyone is born good. We all want to help others and it does make us feel good. I also understand that when two people get in a fight, it's easier to just stay mad instead of shaking hands like the chimpanzees did.

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I thought the article about the genes in the mice was really intriguing. The dominance that these mice exerted after this gene was muted was almost uncontrollable. I don't think humans act like this. I know there are people who are dominant and there are people who are followers, but I think most people can control the amount of dominance they have. In the case of criminals I know there has been research done to show that there is an imbalance of chemicals in their brain which might lead to their behavior, but I still believe, for the most part, that people are born good and strive to do good with what they are given.

Have you ever felt discriminated against? Imagine being totally immersed in an inescapable environment in which you were treated as inferior to others whom you may have once thought your equals.


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Jane Elliott's blue eyes-brown eyes demonstration with her 3rd grade class was something that I truly have internalized and feel that I learned from and will always remember. (chapter 13 of Lilienfeld)

For those that don't know, Jane Elliott created a microcosm of discrimination in society in her classroom in 1969 (and several times since) by separating her students by eye color, favoring one group over the other. It demonstrated the negative interpersonal effects of discrimination, and gave kids a real look into discrimination.

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The results were the best: the students in the unfavored group performed significantly worse, and the results were reversed when the same students were put in the favored group the following day.

As a future teacher, this is something I know I can apply and will be important for me to remember. I hope to always be aware and conscious of in-groups, out-groups, and the effects of discrimination.

Are there human lie detectors? That is what Dr. Cal Lightman serves to be in the TV show, "Lie to Me." As cool as some TV series may be, I think we can all agree that one shouldn't take TV to heart.
So how much truth is there to this ability to "read" a person's face and detect a lie?
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I found it surprising (and awesome) that federal officers were best at detecting lies among others such as federal judges, sheriffs, and academic psychologists. Even they, however, have an average accuracy of only about 72%. (With Mixed law-enforcement officers coming in last at just over 50% or chance accuracy)

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Meanwhile, others like Dr. Paul Ekman still advertize "micro-expression reading" techniques as a legitimate way that anyone can detect lies.

Also, good to note was the finding that there's typically little or no correlation between one's confidence in their ability to detect lies and their accuracy. So, even though you're probably more likely to take someone's word and believe them when they say "I know he was lying..." "I could tell, I'm really good at it," "I'm positive," etc. you shouldn't confuse confidence with correctness.


Have you ever had a time when you "could have sworn" someone was lying and then were proven wrong? or right?

Psychology proved to be one of my favorite classes this semester but the topic that was most intriguing to myself would have to be conformity. Conformity refers to altering your behavior because of group pressures or to fit into a stereotype that you want to be apart of. I always thought it was interesting how people can let this happen and stray away from what they think is right or wrong based on external influences, such as people. The Asch study made the event of conformity even more ridiculous when a test subject would give the wrong answer because the rest of the group did, even when they knew it to be wrong.
I never have thought of myself as one to conform when in reality I probably do it regularly. I always believe that my behavior is consistent with who I represent myself as and not what others are influencing it to be. Although this may be true sometimes, when looking at the people I surround myself with I will often conform to the behaviors of my friends and the groups I am apart of. Although it makes sense to have similar tendencies and behaviors as your friend group the result can be a cross group deindividuation. What I mean by this is that people who become to comfortable in the group there in will end up always going with the flow of others around them, resulting in not necessarily a loss of identity, but a change of identity that is similar to those you surround yourself with on a regular basis. This is not a bad thing, but what I believe is that people should never limit themselves to a certain group of people, especially if they have a negative influence on you. CHANGE IS GOOD and helps you develop into a more concrete individual by learning to step outside your comfort zone and do something completely different then what your regular friends would.

DSM-5 Debate

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I came across this news on the DSM-5 this morning and thought it would be of interest to all of us here since we just learned about it. It just made me happy to understand everything that was there. Hope you enjoy it too!

When I was recently reading the Psychology textbook, I came across a very interesting topic in chapter 13, which was on Social Psychology. On page 496, I came across the "social comparison theory," where we evaluate our abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others.

According to the book, doing this allows us to understand ourselves and our social worlds better. For example, they note how if you want to find out how good you are at psychology, it is only natural to compare yourself to other psychology students around you.

There are two different forms of social comparison. In "upward social comparison," we tend to compare ourselves with people who seem superior to us in some way, like a new football player who compares himself to the best player on the team.

Opposite to this is downward social comparison, where we compare ourselves with others who seem inferior to us in some way, like that new football player comparing himself to a younger football player.

Both upward and downward social comparison sometimes boost our self-concepts.

I found this section to be so interesting, because I am guilty of both modes of social comparison. I especially use downward social comparison in sports, where I frequently think to myself "this guy is clumsier than I am, there is no way I will lose." And I know for a fact that I use upward social comparison in Academics, "if that person can get an A, I can too." Using upward social comparison is what kind of drives me academically. When I see a friend that consistently gets good grades, I want to get on their level and throw an A back at them, so I tell myself that I can do just as good as they did.

Anyway, that's my last blog for the year, hope some of you find it interesting, and make sure to tell me what kind of social comparisons you take part in. Good luck on the final everybody!

One of the most powerful things I learned is probably operant conditioning. I have witnessed operant conditioning before taking this class, but I never really looked more into it. I can say that operant condition is most evident in childhood. When a child does something "good" you reward them, when they do something " bad" we either take away something (negative reinforcement) or give them something they don't want (positive punishment) so they behave the way we want them to.
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I think many of us can relate to this concept even in college. When we study and do our homework we get good grade which increases the chance of that we will continue to study. Now if we don't study we will get bad grades and there is the potential of academic suspension of an email informing our adviser that we aren't doing well in our classes. Most of the time we don't even notice that it's happening or know what it is that is happening. I think that everyone who now knows what operant conditioning is should take full advantage of it and use it for good and not evil! Toodles!

Ever since I can remember knowing what Marijuana was, I can remember people telling me that it was a gate-way drug. What did they mean by this? These people were telling me that if I tried smoking pot, that eventually it would lead to me wanting to experiment with harder drugs. I myself chose to dismiss this claim at a younger age.

I bring this up because I do now believe that it can be a gate-way drug. I am not saying that it happens to everyone but to straight up say it does not lead to harder drug use I think would be a lie. I have watched a family member of mine get involved in the drug scene beginning with marijuana. It started out with just picking up small sacks here or there just to get high like any other teenager. Once he realized that he enjoyed the feeling of being high and was sick of paying for it, he began slanging it. Next thing I know my cousin who I thought I knew pretty well was experimenting with ecstasy, mollie, and even at extreme points heroin. When he was found dead in his apartment there was evidence off all of these drugs present.
It doesn't have to be that extreme where it ends in death, but I have also watched two close buddies of mine stray away because of drugs as well. Both starting with the dealing of marijuana and then having the dreams of wanting more. I have watched them both get into and use multiple times drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy. I have been fortunate enough to watch one of them exit that field however.
I do believe that marijuana makes it a whole lot easier to get into these types of drugs because as I can tell you from experience, you always want more of that "feeling". Like we learned in psychology our body builds up a tolerance to the effects of these drugs and the only way to experience that "high" is to either take more or try something stronger.

The reason I am writing about this in a blog is because I recently read an article from TIME magazine that said that there is no evidence that marijuana is a gate-way drug. In the article however they stated the reason for the massive correlation between marijuana and other hard drugs is because of two things. One, the taste, they stated that people who are extremely interested in altering their consciousness are often more likely to want to try other ways of doing it as well. The second reason is that marijuana dealers are easier to get a hold of compared to those who deal hard drugs. Because of this people will go through their marijuana dealers to obtain harder drugs because their dealers are "trusted" and know where to get them.
The problem I have with them saying it is not a gate-way drug is because of what is stated above. They said that marijuana is the first illicit drug people try because it is the easiest to obtain. Once they try it they want to experience other ways of altering their consciousness. Is that not a gate-way into hard drugs then? or am I missing something? They also talked about how users will go through their marijuana dealers to get hard drugs because they know how to obtain them. Is marijuana not acting as a gate way there too? I would be very interested to know what you all think about this argument. This is just my opinion from personal use and also observing others personal use of this drug.

Stuck in a rut

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I can remember many times in which I have fallen victim to one or more of the obstacles in problem solving. I have taken many math classes in my life, and the higher in calculus you go, the more creative you must be in order to solve problems. This was my biggest pitfall. I would think of a solution to a problem and when it didn't work, I would often make the same mistakes because I was set on that being the type of solution to the problem. The best solution I had to this was to move on in my homework and come back to it later, hopefully with a new perspective on the problem.

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This can apply to real life problems too, not just math. I would sometimes think of a solution to a real world problem for a social studies class and would not be able to think outside that type of solution. An example of this would be that, theoretically, I believe that the solution to our country's debt is to increase taxes. When I start to realize this wouldn't always work, I am unable to come up with another solution because I keep thinking of taxes, when in reality, cutting spending would help too.

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What are you some other strategies from getting out of the problem solving "rut"?

I just took the "Decision 2012" IAT. It was quite interesting. According to this I have a moderate implicit preference for Mitt Romney compared to Barack Obama. I also have a slight implicit preference for White People compared to Black People. I will admit that I prefer Mitt Romney to Barack Obama. Race is no issue there, I prefer Mitt Romney's political views, I'll be honest. Now, to address the other thing. I am certainly not consciously racist, but it is true that I hold certain stereotypes. I don't believe in them and I don't attempt to act on them, but they are still there. Subconsciously, I hold a few stereotypes of other races. I'm sure that not every person falls victim to this, but many do. I think this implicit preference doesn't really mean much. I did answer on the "hot to cold" scale, that white people are slightly warmer to me than black people. I think I answered an 8 for black people and 9 for white people. I grew up in suburban St. Louis. While I was around lots of black people growing up, most of my friends outside of school were white. I lived in an area that is 98.19% white and 0.07% black. There were a lot of black people that I went to school with because of a desegregation program in which my school would bus kids in from the inner city, so I felt very comfortable around black people, but I suppose I do feel slightly more comfortable around white people, because that is who I grew up around.

Anyway, here's a meme that applies:

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If there is one concept in psychology that I learned this semester that I think I will remember and use for a long time, if not the rest of my life, it's the correlation vs. causation fallacy. I notice people falling victim to this fallacy all the time. I don't always call them out, but I am thinking in my head, "No, that's not necessarily true." I even got to use it in my public speaking course. I had to debate on the affirmative side of legalizing marijuana. I used the correlation vs. causation fallacy to debunk the gateway drug argument (people who are open to smoking marijuana are already open to trying new things; it doesn't necessarily mean they do harder drugs because they smoke marijuana, it's just a correlation, not the causation). I think it can be very helpful in the future, especially when analyzing different things in our society. It can help us resolve the roots of our problems. We might be able to throw out possible causes of our problems if we keep correlation vs. causation in mind. What do you guys think? Is correlation vs. causation helpful in society? What are some examples that you have seen since learning about it?

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For my 3rd entry I decided to take Harvard's "IAT" test and see what it was all about. You yourself can take the test if you so choose to (). My results were interesting. The final page read: "Your data suggest a moderate automatic preference for Straight People compared to Gay People." I find my personal results puzzling... mostly because I am gay; and I have a significant other that I've been with for 4 years. So, I now sit here wondering a). did I score these results due to the fact that I'm running off of 4 hours of sleep?, or b). do I seem to have a "automatic preference for straight people compared to gay people" because I often times try to hide the fact that I'm gay so I don't have to explain my sexual orientations to others and justify who I am?

I found a very interesting link on the page that shows results from between 2002-2006 listed by Harvard. I'm puzzled yet again why people associate "bad" quicker with being "gay." This "Sexuality Attitude" bar graph leaves me wondering "Do people associate 'gay' with 'bad' more so than 'good' because it's been termed 'abnormal'?" I don't think that I'm abnormal...I am who I am... not some genetic defect.

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How does this bar graph leave you feeling? (content, uneffected, disgusted with society, upset, frustrated, confused, etc). I'd also be VERY interested to hear the results of anyone else after they take the test.

Notable Abnormality

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The most interesting aspect of this class in my opinion has been the recent subject of abnormal psych, dealing with mental disabilities and what is considered as "abnormal". I always considered the words abnormal and normal obsolete; Normal is just a setting on a washing machine anyway.
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But some of the cases we seen in discussion, such as the man dealing with schizophrenia breaks my heart. When I was watching the video, the main thing going through my mind was how his mother must have felt, because she had to watch her son fight through delusions and what he believed to be people out to get him.
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The reason the abnormal psych part of this class will be the one I most likely remember the best in 5 years is mainly because it hits home for me. I have a brother with bipolar and there are many other extended family members who would be considered to have some of the conditions described in the abnormal psych section. I tend to remember the things I am most interested in, so the abnormal psych topic will be the most prevalent one that this course has taught me about and that I will remember best.

Psychology is a very broad field and offers a large amount of information that can be learned at various times. The spectrum spans from the nature vs. nurture debate all the way to classical conditioning. Choosing a concept that I will remember five years from now was pretty difficult to do because there are so many and I would like to remember everything from psychology. But this could never be done completely!

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I choose to remember drugs, not that they are good, but because of all the bad things that can arise from them. I hope to use the information gained in psychology to make wise decisions in the future about whether to take them or not. Stimulants, such as nicotine has been around for a long time and is legal. But if this drug is used in excess over long periods of time, it can have harmful side effects. Narcotics are around to relieve pain and induce sleep so they are relatively common, especially if I choose to go into a healthcare field. A majority of narcotics can be abused and very harmful to the user however. Lastly, I need to be weary of psychedelics. These hallucinogens can produce alterations of the mind and could lead to some bad decision-making. LSD trips have been known to ruin people's lives.

Drugs have been and will continue to be out there in today's modern world. There will continue to be alterations to them and some will become even more dangerous. How can we as psychologists, use our skills to fight against them? Are there good, illegal, drugs out there?

I am six years old. I sit at the bar with my parents, feet dangling off of the goofy leather stool, mesmerized by the lights, the music, and the smokey haze that fills these fantastic rooms. My father's friends let me roll the bar dice, laughing and cheering me on, and as I take a sip of my kitty cocktail I decide that life is perfect in this moment.

Now I sit here at twenty, yet even the thought of the scene I just described brings a smile to my face. I went back to this same bar, and the bars like it where similar events occurred. They seem smaller, dingier, and the stink of the smoke still clings to your clothes even after they banned cigarettes a few years back.

Why do I bring up this kind of disheartening observation?

-Because it seems to me that memory reconstruction was at work here. Remember that our memory is not picture perfect, but rather a pieced together recollection of past events. Rather than passively reproduce our memories, we recall our past experiences and actively reconstruct them. I believe that when I think back to days such as these, I piece together the best of a large number of situations and produce one enchanting scene. I am certain that emotion also plays a key role, because as a young child everything was so much more exciting. I am sure that I heavily attribute this excitement to the positive feelings that overcome me when I think back on my childhood.

In the same way, I imagine that looking back on Psychology someday, my memory won't be quite the same as the experience itself. Maybe I will remember the horror of cramming for exams, but I hope that I instead remember the insight I gained into the science of psychology, and hopefully apply it to an array of situations in my life.

Chapter one, the discussion of the principles of scientific thinking, logical fallacies, and the discussion of other biases that get in the way of logical thinking will stick with me. Christopher Hitchens, who is my favorite outspoken atheist, implicitly uses these concepts when he debates about religion. I have a video of him making many of these arguments which is definitively worth watching. Watch! Hitchens had a beautiful mind!

Occam's Razor: Christopher Hitchens talks about the virgin birth of Jesus Christ. He says, demonstrating the principle of parsimony: What is more likely? That all natural order is suspended, or that a Jewish mink should tell a lie? Watch: 1:30-1:50
The next segment of this video Hitchens asks about the spread of Christianity, he asks what is more likely: That Christianity spread because the innate truth of the Bible, or because Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. Watch: 1:50-2:15

Extraordinary Claims: Hitchens talks about how the extraordinary claims the Bible make don't hold up to extraordinary evidence. He says how the claims come from "the less literate parts of the middle east. Don't appear to the Chinese where people can read and study evidence and have a civilization. Let's go to the dessert and have another revelation there. Watch: 2:20-3:05

Principle of Falsifiability & Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis (escape hatch that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from falsification) Hitchens says that all of science and world history could be part of god's plan and there is no way an atheist can disprove that. Essentially intelligent design as science can't be science because it is unfalsifiable. Watch: 3:05-3:25

Terror Management Theory (theory proposing that our awareness of our death leaves us with an underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural worldviews): Hitchens explains the view of death he holds as an atheist. He explains the view of deaths theists have and why they use an afterlife as a comfort. Watch: 8:22-10:30

After reading almost the entire Psychology 1001 book, the chapter still highlighted in my mind is Human Development, especially regarding childhood development. Coming from a large extended family and being an older relative, I was the professional babysitter for all my younger cousins.

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At first this responsibility was met with hesitation. Should a one-year-old be walking without help? How old do babies really need to be to eat certain snacks? If they're crying, should I just let them cry themselves to sleep? But even if I didn't know every specific rule, who wouldn't want to get paid $20 for an hour amount of work?

Exploring the factors of motor development, social development, Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories helped cement in my head a clearer picture of childhood development. Although Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories have pros and cons, they lay out a developmental stage of learning and thought processes. As someday hoping to be a mother, the factors of motor and social development helped me understand the more biological side of childhood development.

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So as you all go on to have families in the next 10-20 years maybe you should double-check the criteria of your babysitter. Even if it is only one night a week, do you trust your children to someone who doesn't even know around what age babies start to walk?

Remembering Perception

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I would have to say that the most interesting and perhaps relevant thing I will remember from this course is the concept of perceiving. It amazes me that our eyes only relay information to our brain and it is truly our brain which interprets and does all the work for us. Furthermore we can perceive things differently than other individuals based on our individual unique processes of thoughts. Many of the tricks that our mind can play on us are seen and perceived the same person to person but interestingly enough, some things are interpreted different by different people. I like to think that the most fun and interesting thing is that our mind can play tricks on us based on what we expect to see.
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I think I will always think back to this class when I come across the topic of perception in the future.

Autism & Perception

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The concept in psychology that I think I'll remember five years from now is the video about autistic children. I absolutely fell in love with its idea. I could not believe that with consistent attention, those children got so much better and the evidence was so obvious. They were a mess before and it seemed they were not even aware of their surroundings like their parents and even food. I am still amazed at how much better the children acted with positive reinforcements. It also seemed that the best reinforces were based off of love, like a smile or a hug. Another item from this class that will stick with me will be the discussions about perception and going through the many different pictures of illusions.
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I loved how some sidewalk chalk artist would draw completely 3-D images on the 2-D streets. I did so many double-takes because I could not see how it was actually on the ground. The artists were very amazing. I think it is cool how we know how our brains are flawed. We get "tricked" when we see things that don't make sense. We all perceive differently which makes life different for everyone. I liked connecting what we learned in the book to how it applies to the real world.
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I'm so excited that I've found yet another way to be more critical towards blanket statements people say. Thank you Psychology 1001!

Early on in this course I was happy to learn the many heuristics we utilize as the cognitive misers we are. Consider the situation where people were asked if more murders were committed in Detroit or in Michigan in a given year. Majority of the respondents said Detroit because it's easier for our brains to think of the news stories with murder rates in large cities such as Detroit, Chicago, LA, or New York; however if one were to take just a minute longer to think about this question, we'd realize the city lies within the state, in this case Michigan, and therefore obviously the state would have a higher murder rate assuming that at least one additional murder was committed in another city.
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I find myself already using this approach when people, including myself, state generalized sentences like "It's more dangerous to live in a large city." Prior to taking this class, I may have shrugged off a statement such as this; however, since taking this class I can't help but suggest that perhaps we think these "general" thoughts not because they're based on diagnostic facts but because they're what are most available in our memory.

And if I may add one last thing that is unrelated to heuristics, I was deeply moved by Dr. Paul Broks entry, "My Confession," where he bravely acknowledges that his clinical psychology expertise appears to be irrelevant or peripheral during his own "dark times." I think this submission is extremely touching and grounding. When life goes to sh*t, sometimes all we can manage to do is hold on

Oh Memories.

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The amount of things I am going to learn in school during the next few years is going to be so vast that what I have learned in psych will probably take a review to remember for the most part. There is one topic I will almost surely never forget, and that is the concept of universal adaptability. In all reality, it will be the small parenting section mostly.

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I may not be having children in five years, so this will be remembered a little further on. But when I have children I will make sure to try and keep their universal adaptability alive. On top of this, I will for sure remember the different parenting styles. I think this is partly because I have already learned the parenting styles in a separate class and they are already stuck in my brain. Also, when I have kids I would like them to have the greatest opportunities possible. Because of this, I think if I can make it easier for my children to detect different sounds it may be easier to adapt to different languages and therefore increase their chances to learn and use the languages further expanding opportunities for jobs and enjoying travel.

Let's be rational here...

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This psychology class has taught me a great deal about a range of topics including memory, emotions, stress, sleep, and IQ, to name a few. I believe a lot of what I will remember about psychology in five years will have to do with sleep cycles, stress, and emotion. These topics particularly stuck out to me due to my interest in these subjects. They personally relate to my life because I love sleeping, I am an emotional person, and I am constantly trying to better myself with handling my stress.

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For sleep, it is important for me to understand how much sleep I need per night (8-10 hours now) because I like being awake and alert for my whole day. It is a priority of mine to stay healthy both emotionally and physically, and sleep plays a factor into both. Emotions are very interesting to me. The fact that you are born with specific emotions already is especially intriguing to me. I want to work in the neonatal unit of a hospital when I am older so the section on babies and emotions is an unforgettable one for me. Lastly, I will remember the section on stress the most. I am a person who does not deal well with stress. I often become irrational when placed in situations I am anxious. The part of the chapter discussing how people need to accept the circumstances they are in and then realize they are not able to change them or their feelings about the situation really helps my perspective on handling my anxiety. I feel as though this chapter will especially stick in my life due to the fact that the information may help me in my everyday life. Overall, I am so happy I took this class and learned all the new, interesting facts that I did.

Stress effects people in numerous different ways. Some people deal with stressors as they come while others spend their days worrying about the stressors coming up. There are three approaches to stress discussed in our textbook: stressors as stimuli, stress as a transaction, and stress as a response. Hassles, or little struggles in our life, often cause people to have stress in their daily life. Too much stress can lead to a breakdown, which can happen to anyone who is having trouble coping with their stress.

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A specific effect that can occur from stress is the nocebo effect. The nocebo effect is when beliefs can create reality by stirring your emotions so much that they actually come true. This article describes this effect very well. A personal experience dealing with the nocebo effect in my life has to do with my sister. She has anxiety about many things in her daily life and can't control her reactions to her stress very well. For instance, if her friend gets sick with something such as the flu, she will stress herself out so much and make herself believe that she has the flu. She will do this to the extent that she actually gets flu-like symptoms and begins to throw up. It is very sad to watch because she can't help her emotions, which are causing dramatic reactions in her body.

Numerous sources today bombard new parents with information about the "correct" environment to raise their children. These sources prey on the anxieties of the parents to provide the best environment for their children. I have learned in psychology that it does not take the perfect environment for a child to thrive all it takes is a "good" environment. As long as the child has the essentials of food, clothes, shelter, and love the children are likely to thrive. Couple-Swinging-Child5.jpgThe area parents need to concern themselves with is being as consistent as possible and trying to be as authoritative as possible. This means being both demanding and responsive to the child. Authoritative parents allow their child to develop on their own but sets limits and provide encouragement to the child every step of the way. Being an authoritative parent will allow your child to mature and gain self-confidence. When it comes to raising children it is not about being perfect but rather about being consistent and providing the essentials a child needs to thrive. What do you think is the most important aspect of parenting? Do you agree/disagree with anything in this entry?

You Are Not Alone!

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On a day-to-day basis people deal with making decision, whether they are influenced by others or not. I feel that five years from now the idea of social influence and social psychology will stick with me.

Unconsciously, fellow peers influence people's decisions. We often conform (tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure) or obey in order to avoid being the odd one out. In our culture, Americans do not like to be singled out. We often loose our identity (or deindividuation: tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities) and morals just to hide ourselves and agree with others. This leads to another idea called groupthink: emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking. Americans like to get things done in the fastest and easiest way possible, so if everyone agrees the job will get done. This is not always the most effective way with the greatest turn out though.

Take a minute and think about it....
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How many times have you made a decision that was not fully and truly your decision? How many times have you worked in a group and people all just agree with one person's ideas to get the job done faster and possibly not to the full potential?

I feel that this is not only an issue now in all our lives but will be in years to come. As we graduate and make our way into the working field, we are all going to have big decisions that need to be made on our own. We will also work in several groups to get tasks completed. We need to keep in mind who we are individually and what we believe in. This is the only way to be true to ourselves and fair to all other people.

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According to BellaOnline's Japanese Culture Editor, "The desire to know about blood type, started because of an assertion from the West, which stated that Asians were lower, in the evolutionary chain and that they were more closely related, to animals than other races." Interestingly, that was the start point where Asian countries became deep into the study of blood type.

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Finding correlation between blood type and personality traits is one of popular theory in Asia countries, especially in Japan. Even though it has been disproved by Modern Science, some Japanese Scientist such as Furukawa Takeji still took it upon himself to scientifically by matching personality traits to blood type.
It was about 4 years ago in Korea when a movie, "Blood Type B" came out. In the movie, one guy with type B blood was described as a play body and a quick lover with non-responsibility. Because the movie was so popular at that time, many girls almost did not want to go out with a guy with type B blood. However, ironically, the percentage of blood type B is greater than the combination of all other blood types in Korea. I believe that the blood type theory regarding personality traits is almost not credible at all. In addition, the description about each blood type is so general that it could apply to everyone.
Following are the personality traits ascribed to the basic blood types. (If you know yours, try them)

Blood Type A:
Positive Traits: Conservative, introverted, reserved, patient, punctual and inclined to be perfectionists.
Worst Traits: Obsessive, stubborn, self-conscious and uptight.
Referred as 'farmers' in some descriptions, Type A's are said to be considerate of others and loyal to a fault. They can also be secretive and reluctant to share their feelings. Apparently they don't hold their liquor well, either.

Blood Type B:
Type B men have acquired a very negative reputation in Korea and are not considered by many to be good husband material. Often described as 'players', they are perceived as being selfish and mercurial, quick to anger and not terribly reliable. That said, their bad boy image makes them very attractive to women, but not for the long term. (Type B women do not share in this bad rep, for some unexplained reason).

Blood Type AB:
Referred to as 'humanists', Type AB's are said to be controlled more by their heads, than by their hearts. They are rational, good with money, but unpredictable. Although inclined to be distant, they prefer harmony and as such, work well with mediators. Some consider them two-faced, and therefore untrustworthy.

Blood Type O:
Referred to as 'warriors', Type O's are viewed as natural leaders and are often, also, natural athletes. They tend to be outgoing, expressive and passionate, but can also bore others to death with their obsessive drive for success coupled with their absolute convictions that they are winners. This certainty that they will always win explains why they aren't afraid to take risks or gamble. They have a strong physical presence and are unlikely to ever be overlooked.
If you have known and tried them, do you think there is correlation between the personality traits and blood type?

There are several things throughout this psychology course that I believe will linger with me for many years to come, but I think the most valuable and probably most simplistic concept that will remain a part of my arsenal is the idea that correlation does not equal causation. This idea is one of the founding scientific thinking principles, and it applies to an astonishing number of debates and events throughout one's lifetime. I'm confident it will be something I use to reconcile one's logic with in the future, because just this week I was presented with the topic of explicit gangsta rap music and its negative impact on the youth of America. There's an argument that these lyrics containing graphic lyrics depicting gang-banging, sex, drugs and violence, are the cause of the actions of adolescents associated with these types of activities. I believe, however, that the gangsta rap genre is in general of most appeal to the types of people Gangsta Rap.jpgcausation. It's these types of discussions and situations in which I find myself latching onto ideas learned from my psychology course thus far. I will always be an analytical thinker, and this principle will aid me in the battle against ignorance.

There are several things throughout this psychology course that I believe will linger with me for many years to come, but I think the most valuable and probably most simplistic concept that will remain a part of my arsenal is the idea that correlation does not equal causation. This idea is one of the founding scientific thinking principles, and it applies to an astonishing number of debates and events throughout one's lifetime. I'm confident it will be something I use to reconcile one's logic with in the future, because just this week I was presented with the topic of explicit gangsta rap music and its negative impact on the youth of America. There's an argument that these lyrics containing graphic lyrics depicting gang-banging, sex, drugs and violence, are the cause of the actions of adolescents associated with these types of activities. I believe, however, that the gangsta rap genre is in general of most appeal to the types of people Gangsta Rap.jpgcausation. It's these types of discussions and situations in which I find myself latching onto ideas learned from my psychology course thus far. I will always be an analytical thinker, and this principle will aid me in the battle against ignorance.

Emoti-cons. :(

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We all have emotions, the main 7 being happy, sad, angry, contempt, fear, surprise, and disgust. We can be happy and on top of the world, or sad and feel like nothing will ever get better. Most of our emotions can be described without words and with our body language. But in the recent years, our society is increasingly moving towards text messaging and email, and away from face-to-face communication. We show emotions through things like USING ALL CAPITAL LETTERS to express anger or excitement, or short answers like "k"to show something might be wrong. But we also use emoticons to show how we feel. the problem with them is does a simple face made of simples really get across the point of how we are feeling? Given a simple smile, :) , many things could be interpreted. smilies-emoticons.jpg

Emoticons have their pros, such as acting as almost a substitute ( a weak one) to body language, but at the same time, emoticons take away from writing how you actually feel. As we move more and more towards text communication, what do you think is the biggest consequence? Do you think text and email communication impair our abilities to communicate in person?

I think most American's feel that there is a stigma around psychological disorders. People think that they are weak or may seem weak if they seek help for mental illnesses. I, personally, have not been affected by a mental disorder myself or known someone personally with a mental disorder. Although, after learning the statistics, I'm sure that I must know someone who has a psychological disorder. People actively seek medical attention for physical ailments, so we, as a society, need to start getting help for psychological disorders.

Being at a large public university, there are many resources at our disposal. Two resources that would be beneficial for students struggling with mental disorders is the Boynton Health Service Mental Health Clinic or University Counseling & Consulting Services. If you are a student or employee of the U of M, these services are free! I feel that the U of M should do a better job of making students aware of their services. I think that college students are at risk of mental illnesses because college years are a major transition in most people's lives. Students should not feel shame for seeking out help for the disorders.

mental_health_awareness.jpgMay happens to be Mental Health Awareness month! I think that everyone in Psych 1001, after learning about the different psychological disorders, should try and stamp out the stigma of mental health disorders and encourage people to seek help for mental disorders!

The Freudian defense mechanisms, which are unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety, are something that we engage in; more often than we realize. Don't you agree? I have seen Denial being exhibited by my aunt when my uncle passed away in a motorcycle accident. Denial is motivated forgetting of distressing experiences. Recently, my dad engaged in rationalization when he came to know that he might be told to retire in a few years. Rationalization is nothing but providing reasonable sounding explanations for unreasonable behaviors or failures. We knew that he was clearly upset about it because my dad is a person who doesn't like to sit at home and relax. But he kept on saying that he would enjoy his life by traveling and doing other activities that he wouldn't normally do, if he was asked to retire. cartoon1.gif I engage in rationalization whenever I get lower grades and when I fail job interviews. I use displacement, which is directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a more acceptable one, when I am stressed out. The acceptable one is either eating or running on a treadmill until I sweat it all out. Projection is also another very common one, where we unconsciously attribute our negative attributes onto others; like blaming the teacher for our poor performance in class.

Apart from these, there are other defense mechanisms like Repression, motivated forgetting of an emotional memory; Regression, returning psychologically to a younger and safer time; Reaction-Formation, transforming an anxiety producing experience into its opposite; Intellectualization, avoiding anxiety by focusing on abstract and impersonal thoughts; Sublimation, transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an acceptable one; and Identifying with the aggressor, adopting psychological characteristics of the person we find threatening.
Which of these do you use more?

I am sure that all of us are aware of the Flynn effect seeing as we all learned about it in chapter 9. The Flynn effect is finding that average IQ scores have been rising at a rate of approximately three points per decade and that on average our IQ's are 10-15 points higher than those of our grandparents. This is pretty amazing huh? Psychologists have proposed some explanations...1) Increased test sophistication (better at taking tests) 2) Increased complexity of the modern world (technology) 3) Better nutrition (not suffering from malnutrition) 4) Changes at home and school (parents having less children hence devoting more time to the ones they have). These explanations seem pretty reasonable accept there is one problem, recent data suggests that the Flynn effect may be reversing or decreasing.

Why would the Flynn effect be decreasing? Well, I agree with three of the four explanations. Explanations 1,2,4 seem reasonable but I'm not sure I agree with explanation 3. Better nutrition you say? Last time I checked Americans were not healthy eaters at all. Americans today consume way to much sugar in their diet, not enough water, and not enough exercise (the majority). I can see how poor nutrition can cause a reverse Flynn effect. Poor nutrition with little exercise is not what the brain needs to perform at a maximum level. For the brain to grow in different areas it needs nutrients to feed off of. What we put into our body is what we get out of out body. Children sitting all day video gaming rather than playing with other children could also be the culprit. What other factors could contribute to the Flynn effect decreasing? Thoughts?
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Enough is Enough

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As our school year windes down to the end it is quite obvious that many of us have had enough learning for one year and may need a break. I have been thinking about his idea for a couple weeks now because i have found it harder and harder to study or learn new material. I feel as if my brain is full for the time being. I guess what I want to know is if there is anything in our brain that makes it harder and harder to learn as the school year goes on? Is it lack of focus? A unique case? Or does this happen to everyone?

After searching the web I was asked myself these questions:
Are we too used to our environment?
Do we need to switch our place of study?
Are we addicted to the internet?

There was not much else on the web besides people telling others with this problem to just try harder. I believe that can help but I honestly want to know if there is something biologically in our brain that makes it harder to learn after learning for a long period of time? Please tell me what you all think?

Nature Vs. Nurture, we all have our opinion on what this phrase means to us and what side of the debate we feel is most influential to our daily lives. For me this will forever be a fight inside my head to pick the ultimate factor in the person you become. Each person may be affected differently which complicates the debate even further. nature_vs_nurture2.jpg Looking into this further I find myself being able to generally define whether the traits of yourself come from nature or nurture. For example, most physical features are from genetics and therefore nature. On the opposite side of the spectrum, I find that your personality and language type come from being around your parents and peers, this is therefore nurture. These generalizations could also get controversial though because are all of your features and your appearance based off of nature or are some of them, such as obesity, due to nurture? Another twist to this debate is, where do our parents get their nurturing skills? Is this through nature from their lives? And if so does that mean the link continues and nature dictates all? These questions could continue on. I feel that this is why I will always remember this concept, it is something that will continue to ponder in everyone's heads and will be carried with us for longer than even five years.
Permissive is exactly how I would explain my parents parenting style throughout my childhood years. Not the permissive style that Regina George's mom from Mean Girls takes in this video here. My parents took a more subtle approach.
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For me, I would like to think, that I turned out just fine and scraped by with a few minor bumps and bruises. My parents never thought that grounding me would be beneficial. This may be to the fact that both my parents were rebels and their parents punishing them only forced them to break the rules even further. This leaves me to believe that my parents not punishing me lead myself to think that I have my parents trust and I wasn't willing to break that. My parents seemed to think this technique worked great for me so they carried it onto my sister three years later. This didn't seem to go over as smoothly with her as it did for me. My sister continues to be the rebel that my parents were afraid to find from punishing. She is very different than me and this just shows that maybe there are different ways that suit each person and not just one single "just right" method. How did your parents raise you? Do you believe that theres a technique for every personality? (blog for 4/25 discussion)

Dogs VS. Cats

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I found a snippet in the Lilienfeld text that discussed personality traits that are associated with dog & cat people. Dog people are personal, outgoing, fun people where as, cat people are quiet, a bit neurotic, and like to be alone. As I relate this information to myself without a doubt, I'm considered to be a "dog person". Like the personality traits of a typical dog person I love to explore and be around people.

I also acknowledge that my own life experiences have played into the fondness I have for these wet-nosed friends. Since I was a child I've had positive experiences with dogs. The very first dog I encountered was my grandparent's dog, Griffin. He let me play with him, even if I pulled his tail. My grandparents also had a cat named Katze. Katze didn't have Griffin's disposition at all. He would claw me if I tried to play with him & screech at me if I tried to hold him. The negative experiences I had with this cat tainted my future encounters with these felines.

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When I was in fourth grade my family got my dog Duncan. He and I hit it off right away. His personality was very agreeable and he was always ready to play. Duncan would follow me around and always greet me at the door when I came home. Like most dog owners, I felt a connection to him unlike any bond I had with a human. Even when Duncan became an old dog he still showed the same affection towards me as he did when he was a puppy.

Despite my own personal preference between dogs or cats, I believe that any pet is a good pet to have. They bring out the best characteristics people and always keep you company especially when life gets tough.


Personality Traits Discussed:

An additional video for the "Dog people":

It is very interesting to read about Lawrence Kohlberg's theory on morality. It seems to make sense to me. Children often do things or do not do things because they either want to be praised or not scolded by our parents. Children would only eat cookies before dinner if they thought they could get away with it (maybe they shouldn't mess with Arnold). Otherwise, they would not eat them before dinner. Not because society places any kind of pressure to not eat cookies before dinner, or because there is actually something wrong with eating cookies before dinner, but because parents will get upset if a child spoils their dinner. This is all it truly boils down to.

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As pre-teens and teenagers, we often don't do things because of rules placed in society. These may or may not be arbitrary. However, this conventional morality often never leaves us. I have a good example of a person who only had progressed to conventional morality when they should have been postconventionally moral. My senior year of high school, I severely sprained my ankle during my final football game. We were deep in the playoffs, so most people in the school had seen it happen. I went to the emergency room immediately after the game and was on crutches the remainder of the weekend. On Monday when it was time for school, I decided I didn't want the crutches, even though my ankle was in severe pain. I didn't honestly want to deal with taking the elevator more than anything. Anyway, I went to class, but was a few minutes late. The teachers that stand in the hallway to give students tardies let me pass because they had seen the game. They just told me to get my ankle healthy. When I got to class, my teacher asked where my crutches were, as she had heard about my injury too. She said she wished me good health, however, she said that I was tardy for class. She made me walk to the end of the hallway with a bum ankle and get a tardy. Now, I realize I am biased, but was she justified in doing that? I was a senior, well respected in the school, was on track to be valedictorian of my class, etc. I wasn't being tardy because I didn't want to go to class, I was recently injured. Was she justified in doing so, or was she just being strictly conventionally moral?

Diana Baumrinds highlighted three major parenting styles that are can be found in most cases of child-to-parent relationships. These styles were permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative and each covers how a parent disciplines and supports their children in different ways. As "young adults" these styles are are important to recognize, that is, if you want to be a parent in the future or already are one.
Permissive parents discipline on an irregular basis, giving their children considerable freedom day to day. This is the "to soft" approach because these kids have no restrictions or boundaries that are set in place. I believe this parenting style to be one of the worst based on my own observations with friends whose parents were the permissive type. They tend to be more disobedient and spontaneous when it comes to making bad decisions. The next parenting style, Authoritarian, is the "too hard" approach. These parents set strict boundaries and are quick to punish and do not allow a child to learn from themselves when mistakes have been made. They also show little affection to their offspring which I think could cause kids to be more anxious about doing things, thinking it will never be good enough.
The last parenting style, Authoritative, is the "just right" approach, which is the parenting style that fits with how I grew up (so its obviously the best)(Just kidding). These parents are more lenient and allow their children to take action for themselves but still discipline if they think they are not heading in the right direction or if the need a hand. I think this parenting style allows for the most growth in a children because they allow there kids freedom, but help them out enough where the child knows they are their for them.
What parenting style did you come up with? Do you agree with my analysis?
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The Milgram Study

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Among many chapters we've gone through there is a particular study that I remember, the Milgram study. The video we watched had brought upsetting result, but I thought that the Milgram study may help me to be a better leader and moral individual.The striking results of the Milgrim study reported that more than 50% of its participants actually delivered the maximum shock under the instruction of a single researcher. The researchers administered potentially dangerous voltages of electric shock to confederate participants to reveal man's tendency for unquestioning compliance to authority. These findings are quite disturbing and unsettling to me because, honestly, I admit that I am compliant to authority. I feel I would be susceptible to control by an authority figure, and I would just passed my moral thoughts by the instruction in the high level.

Through this experiment, the researchers concluded "the ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process. Moreover, even when the destructive effects of their work become patently clear, and they are asked to carry out actions incompatible with fundamental standards of morality, relatively few people have the resources needed to resist authority"(Milgram 1974). I think this study is a great example of demonstrating the dangers of obedience. I believe that obedience is heavily influenced by both personal beliefs and overall temperaments, but the power of temperaments seem little more powerful. So, I realize that I have to take step to guard myself against unwelcome or reprehensible commands (which against my moral nature), and that can influence other people positively.

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My favorite part of the 13th chapter was the last section. Here it is talk about two cases that show how prejudice can be combat. This cases are called the Robbers Cave Study and the Jigsaw Classrooms.

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The Robbers Cave Study was conducted by Muzafer Sherif in 1954. Here 22, 11-year-old, boys were lead to believe they were attending a normal summer camp where three phases occur:

1) In-group formation
The boys were randomly divided into two groups, and assigned to two living areas. The two groups were isolated from each other, and none of the participants were aware of there being a second group.
 Each group spent a week doing sports and activities with members of their group.

2) Friction phase
The groups were then put into situations in which they were to compete against the other group for prizes, the goal being to create intergroup tension. This resulted in animosity between the groups, which included raids and fist-fighting.


3) Integration Phase
In a third phase of the study, the experimenters attempted to reduce the level of intergroup-conflict, by increasing the contact between the two groups. This was initially unsuccessful, but was more successful once superordinate goals were introduced to the groups. This reduced inter-group tension, and the individuals from each group became friendlier toward each other.

But contact by itself cannot heal the deep wounds of prejudice. Interventions are most likely to reduce prejudice only if they satisfy the following conditions:


  • The groups should cooperate toward shared goals

  • The contact between groups should be enjoyable

  • The groups should be of roughly equal status

  • Group members should disconfirm the other group's negative stereotypes

  • Group members should have the potential to become friends

Then, Elliot Aronson applied the lesson form the previous study into the Jigsaw Classrooms, and found a significant decrease in racial prejudice.

Do you have any prejudice that you have get in contact that you will like to share? Or do you have any situation where you had or could apply this technique?

You RACIST!

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When you take an Implicit Association Test (IAT), it tests those unconscious prejudices. There are many different tests in order to see prejudices towards many different things, (gender, religion, race, age, etc) . In the case of the picture below, the results found people preferred white to black. The first time I took the test I was told I have a moderate automatic preference for Black people compared to White people. The second time I took the test I was told I have little to no automatic preference between Black and White people.

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In my own personal opinion, I feel it mostly comes from mistakes made by over thinking things. The instructions of the test is to go as fast as possible and that if you go slow, your results will not be able to be configured. During the majority of the test, I found myself struggling to click the correct side. By this I mean that when the descriptive words "good"/"African-American" were on the left and "bad"/"European-American" on the right, I got used to it at the end but then they switched, screwing up my clicking the next round. I also found that after I messed up the first couple times I would start over thinking what I was doing and question the wrong thing. Finally, my friend took the test as I did and he found that he was similar to the 27% range for strong automatic preference for white people. While, I find this to be true of his characteristics, we spoke about the test and realized he felt more pictures of white people appeared while on my test, I found there to be more black people. Due to all of these added factors and the fact I got two different results, I question how legitimate this test is. Take the test and tell me what you think.

https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/Study?tid=-1

When reading our psychology textbook, I came across a section that really captured my attention: Personal Space. The term is coined "proxemics," and this idea really comes in to my life most every day.
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So this section discusses the four different levels of personal space, being : Public distance, Social distance, Personal distance, and Intimate distance.

Public distance is considered to have at least 12 feet between two speakers, and is used for public speaking, such as lecturing. A Social distance, normally incorporated among strangers or casual acquaintances, is typically 4-12 feet. The Personal distance is even closer, being an estimated 1.5 to 4 feet, and is used for close friends or romantic partners. And finally, there is Intimate distance, the closest of them all, being 0-1.5 feet apart. This is typically for kissing, hugging, whispering, and affectionate touching.

This section, as I mentioned, really grabbed my attention, because I have a friend that is really up in your face with every conversation, and this is the first time I have ever had this weird phenomenon, but I actually feel a tad uncomfortable. It feels so weird to have someone stand so close while talking with you, and I constantly am looking away from her when we talk, because it can be that weird. I find it fascinating and true that there are indeed some kind of socially acceptable speaking distances for different people. For my friend, she talks with pretty much every person she meets at a Personal distance (1.5-4 feet), so I guess for her that is a good social distance. Proxemics rings so true in every day life, I know others have to have some experiences like this right?

IQ Score Matter?

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The term IQ, or Intelligence Quotient, generally explains a score on a test that rates the subject's cognitive ability. I remember that I took an IQ test when I was in the middle school. At that time, I believe that the high IQ is the most important factor to be outstanding compared to other students in academic performance. However, there were some exception cases; my teacher mentioned that she was surprised to see that some students with the low IQ score were very good at other mathematics tests.
I still somewhat believe that there is a bit correlation between IQ and job performance. In addition, it is mentioned in the Chapter 9 that IQ scores predict performance across a wide variety of occupations, with the average correlation about 0.5. In addition the correlation between IQ and job performance is even higher among the jobs that require more mentally demanding occupations such as physician or lawyer. Many psychological studies support the correlation between a high IQ score and performance at work. From my experience, I observe that employers, especially in companies in Korea, frequently use the IQ score or a score on a test that the companies develop to identify the best candidates.
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However, some people argue that the IQ score is not an absolute factor that can decide performance at work. In addition, they argue that there are other sociological factors such as personality, peer relation and communication skills besides the IQ scores might be playing a bigger role in performance at work.
Do you think that high IQ scores mostly matter to achieve better work performance? Or other sociological factors mostly matter?
Here is the free IQ test website